Zoology - Chapter 9 Quizam Review

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Colonial theory

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35 Terms

Colonial theory

the idea that multicellular life emerged from colonies of single cell organisms eventually developing to specialize.

Syncytial theory

the idea that multicellular life emerged from multinucleate cells developing partitions within themselves.

Pinacocytes

outer sponge cells

<p>outer sponge cells</p>

Mesohyl

the middle layer of sponges

<p>the middle layer of sponges</p>

mesenchyme

the cells in the mesohyl of a sponge

<p>the cells in the mesohyl of a sponge</p>

choanocytes

flagellated collar cells on the inside of sponges used to generate currents and catch particles for food.

<p>flagellated collar cells on the inside of sponges used to generate currents and catch particles for food.</p>

spicule

the sturdy "skeleton" of sponges that help them keep their shape.

<p>the sturdy &quot;skeleton&quot; of sponges that help them keep their shape.</p>

porocytes

specialized pinacocytes that are mildly contractile to regulate water flow through the sponge

<p>specialized pinacocytes that are mildly contractile to regulate water flow through the sponge</p>

amoeboid cells

a type of mesenchyme cells that travel around the sponge delivering waste and food to where it needs to be.

<p>a type of mesenchyme cells that travel around the sponge delivering waste and food to where it needs to be.</p>

ostia/ostium

the small openings on the sides of a sponge used to draw in water

osculum

the large opening at the top of the sponge, usually serves as an exit

<p>the large opening at the top of the sponge, usually serves as an exit</p>

spongocoel

the area inside the sponge

<p>the area inside the sponge</p>

ascon

simplest, least common, smallest body plan

<p>simplest, least common, smallest body plan</p>

sycon

middle body plan, more common

<p>middle body plan, more common</p>

leucon

most complex, most common, largest body plan

<p>most complex, most common, largest body plan</p>

incurrent canal

canals in a sponge used to draw water in from outside the sponge

<p>canals in a sponge used to draw water in from outside the sponge</p>

radial canal

canals inside a sycon sponge branching off the spongeocoel

<p>canals inside a sycon sponge branching off the spongeocoel</p>

excurrent canal

canals leading out of the sponge (most common in luecon sponges)

<p>canals leading out of the sponge (most common in luecon sponges)</p>

gemmules

packets of sponge pieces expelled by sponges in extreme conditions to reproduce asexually when conditions are better

monoecious

every individual has both sperm and eggs so only one individual is needed to sexually reproduce

Polyp

stationary cnidarian body form, usually radially symmetric with oral end facing up and tentacles used for feeding.

<p>stationary cnidarian body form, usually radially symmetric with oral end facing up and tentacles used for feeding.</p>

medusa

free swimming cnidarian body form, radially symmetric, oral end facing down and tentacles for hunting

<p>free swimming cnidarian body form, radially symmetric, oral end facing down and tentacles for hunting</p>

mesoglea

gooey noncellular in between layer of cnidarians

nerve net

simplistic nervous system of cnidarians

gastrovascular cavity

the cavity that the mouth leads into and is used in digestion and waste expulsion

zooid

one specialized member of a colonial animal

epidermis

the outer layer of cells of cnidarians arisen from the ectodermis

gastrodermis

the inner layer of cells in cnidarians lining the gastrovascular cavity arisen from the endodermis

cnidocyte

the stinging cell in cnidarians

nematocysts

specialized cnidocytes in the tentacles of some cnidarians with that eject a barbed and/or venomous thread to attack prey

<p>specialized cnidocytes in the tentacles of some cnidarians with that eject a barbed and/or venomous thread to attack prey</p>

dioecious

each individual carries either eggs or sperm so two individuals are needed for sexual reproduction

planula

the free floating larva of cnidarians

<p>the free floating larva of cnidarians</p>

gastrozooid

member of a colonial animal specialized for digestion

gonozooid

member of a colonial animal specialized for reproduction

When did multicelluar life arise?

600 millions years ago