Pathophysiology Midterm 1

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359 Terms


impairment of health with periods of before and after


damage or change to tissue that is usually caused by disease --> potential for cancer

symptomatic disease

common symptoms associated with a disease or condition are present

asymptomatic disease

common symptoms are not present but disease is positive


causes of a disease


development of a disease

classifications of disease

physical mental infectious non infectious inherited

levels of prevention

primary, secondary, tertiary

primary prevention

avoiding disease

secondary prevention

mitigating the effects of disease

tertiary prevention

preventing disability/sequelae


determination of the nature and cause of disease/illness

potential requirements for diagnosis

clinical history physical exam a differential diagnosis

differential diagnosis

determining a disease via the symptoms and choosing what fits the archetype


predicting the eventual outcome of the disease

specific treatment

treatment towards the disease

symptomatic treatment

relief of the symptoms

5 components of a clinical history

history of illness medical history family history social history (living and social environment) review of the symptoms

Diagnostic Test Considerations

Cost Invasiveness Appropriateness Effectiveness (false positive/false negative)


correct representation of people WITHOUT disease FALSE NEGATIVES RESULT FROM LOW SPECIFICITY


lowest viral load that can be measured test likelihood to detect a PRESENT condition LOW SENSITIVITY LEADS TO FALSE POSITIVES


important for asymptomatic, genetic, and symptomatic diseases

Asymptomatic screening

helps as some diseases take YEARS to progress

Genetic Screening

helps as it can determine susceptibility to disease and likelihood of passing the disease over generations

Clinical Laboratory Diagnostic Testing

looking at fluid samples usually blood or urine to evaluate enzymes, organ function, monitor response of certain cancers to treatment, etc.

Imaging Test: Xray

high energy radiation at low doses to detect radiopaque (bones) and radiolucent (soft tissue) structures

xray dyes

used to detect tissues in certain areas dependent on the dyes

CT scan acronym

computed tomography

Diagnostic: CT

Use of many Xrays and computed software to get isolation of areas at perfect resolution lots of radiation good to look at abnormal organs or lesions for cancer in asymptomatic individuals

Diagnostic Test: MRI

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Hydrogen protons in water

Different Weighting of MRI

T1 and T2 --> high weighting FLAIR GRE Gradient Proton Density

Diagnostic Test: PET

positron-emission tomography assess biochemical function bright dots on a film overlapped with CT able to differentiate between benign and malignant tumours

Diagnostic Tests: Radioisotope Studies

Evaluate organ function by determining the rate of uptake and excretion of substances that are labelled with a radioisotope

radioisotyped substance anemia

vitamin B12

radioisotyped substance hyperthyroidism

radioactive iodine

Diagnostic Tests: Cytology

Examination of a single cell type (usually fluids) (Pap smear) recognizes early changes that may be associated with cervical cancers

Diagnostic Tests: Histology

Study of microanatomy of cells, tissues, and organs (Biopsy) Use of tissue samples

Diagnostic Tests: Electrical Activity

ECG --> heart EEG --> brain and brain waves EMG --> muscles (myograph)

Diagnostic Test: Endoscopy

Examination of the interior of the body via small incisions

Diagnostic Test: Ultrasound

Mapping of the interior of the body using high-frequency sound waves

Organizational Hierarchy

Cells Tissues Organs Organ Systems Organism

Cell function is determined by

gene expression

Genetic info is contained in the


Cell to cell differences of organelles

greater than cell to cell differences of the nucleus

organelle size

vary based on function

mitochondria function

powerhouse of the cell food material into ATP

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum functino

protein synthesis

Smooth ER lipid synthesis

lipid synthesis

Golgi Apparatus main characteristics

sacs near nucleus synthesis of large carbs connected with RER tubules proteins go through the RER to the Golgi and then combine with carb molecules and form granules