physics- energy p1

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what is the mnemonic to remember the energy stores

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1

what is the mnemonic to remember the energy stores

geeks lunch, u doesnt stand for anything

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2

what are the 9 energy stores

gravitational potential, electrical, elastic potential, kinetic, sound, light, nuclear, chemical, heat/thermal energy

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3

system

group of objects, when it changes there are changes in the way energy is stored

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4

closed system

a system that has no changes in the energy stores the energy is being transferred between

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5

what is the law regarding conservation of energy

energy cannot be created or destroyed it can only be moved/ transferred into another type of energy

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6

where can energy go during an energy transfer

transfer or dissipate

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7

what do we say energy transferred is

work done

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8

what does work done depend on

the amount of force applied in newtons and how much it has moved an object along a line

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9

what is work done measured in

joules

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10

when work is done to overcome friction, what store does the energy change into

thermal

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11

friction in humans

rub your hands together= heat

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12

gravitational potential energy

energy store that shows the position of an object in relation to its elevation and mass

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13

what is gravitational potential energy measured in

joules

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14

kinetic energy

energy an object has because of its motion

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15

what is kinetic energy measured in

joules

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16

elastic potential energy

the work done on an elasticated object

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17

what is elastic potential energy measured in

joules

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18

when energy dissipates, what two categories does it go in

useful energy, wasted energy

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19

useful energy

energy transferred to where its wanted in the way that its wanted

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20

wasted energy

energy that is not transferred where its wanted

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21

efficiency

how well and object uses its energy and doesnt waste it

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22

how to improve efficiency

  • lubricate parts to prevent friction (thermal energy)

  • streamline shapes of moving objects to reduce air resistance

  • tighten loose parts to prevent sound energy

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23

power

the amount of energy supplied to an object per second

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24

what is power measured in

watts or kilowatts

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25

how many watts in a kilowatt

1000

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26

thermal conductivity

how well a material is able to conduct heat

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27

why is insulation thick

to reduce thermal conductivity and prevent heat escaping

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28
<p>how can we detect heat coming off a building</p>

how can we detect heat coming off a building

using an infared camera- red means lots of heat so its escaping and blue means cold so heat is not escaping

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29

specific heat capacity

the amount of energy 1kg of an object needs to raise its temperature by 1 degree celcius

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30

what is the specific heat capacity measured in

j/kg°C

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31

renewable energy

energy that wont run out and we can get more

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32

biofuel

fuel taken from living or recently living organisms e.g animal dung, ethanol from sugarcane

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33

nuclear fuel

fuel derived from unstable nuclei of atoms splitting and transferring energy (thermal)

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34

name 4 renewable energy resources

sun/ heat (solar panels), wind (turbines), water (tidal, hydroelectric power, waves), geothermal

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35

solar energy definition + pros and cons

panels absorbing suns rays making them into energy

renewable and doesnt emmit co2

depends on light intensity, doesnt happen at night, very expensive

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36

wind energy definition + pros and cons

wind spins turbines spinning motor to produce energy

efficient and renewable

eyesore, danger to birds, doesnt provide constant source of energy

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37

wave energy definition + pros and cons

waves push a floating generator up and down which drives an internal generator to generate electricity

renewable

expensive and cables across coast are an eyesore

<p>waves push a floating generator up and down which drives an internal generator to generate electricity</p><p></p><p>renewable</p><p></p><p>expensive and cables across coast are an eyesore</p>
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38

hydroelectric power definition + pros and cons

rainwater that is collected flows down and turns a generator as it flows

renewable

required flooding which displaces people and infrastructure

<p>rainwater that is collected flows down and turns a generator as it flows</p><p></p><p>renewable</p><p></p><p>required flooding which displaces people and infrastructure</p>
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39

tidal energy definition + pros and cons

as tides go up and down they spin turbines underwater converting the spinning into energy

renewable variations in tide affect output, can alter habitats and be a nuisance for shipping overseas

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40

geothermal energy definition + pros and cons

steam from hot rocks rotates turbine

renewable

eyesore, only available in small number of areas where hot rocks are close to surface

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41

finite energy/ non renewable energy

energy that will run out, usually produces global warming

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42

name the 2 types of non-renewable energy

nuclear fuel, fossil fuels- coal, oil, gas

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43

fossil fuels definition + pros and cons

dug up from crust and made over millions of years, burnt to generate power

effective

polluting, not infinite so close to running out, expensive to extract, contributes to acid rain, climate change

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44

nuclear power definition + pros and cons

nuclear energy outputs power from a very high concentration to a lower amount

effective and produces a lot

very dangerous, waste has to be stored for long periods of time

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