biology - cells

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active transport

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active transport

movement of material against a concentration gradient. This method requires energy produced during respiration.

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anaerobic respiration

respiration without oxygen

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catalyst

substance which speeds up a chemical reaction without being used up itself

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chloroplast

structure found in plants which is the site where photosynthesis occurs

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cilia

tiny strands or threads around the outside of unicellular organisms which help the cilia move

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cytoplasm

the semi-liquid material inside a cell in which all organelles float in

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denatured

loss of an enzyme's normal shape so that it no longer functions; caused by a less than optimal pH and temperature

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diffusion

the movement of material from high concentration to low concentration. This method does not require any energy.

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endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

network of folded membranes with or without ribosomes, where many chemical reactions occur, or chemicals are transported

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enzymes

proteins that acts as organic catalysts to speed up the rate of a chemical reaction

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extracellular

outside the cell

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flaccid

a cell that has lost water due to osmosis

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flagella

long hair-like strands which whip back and forth to move a unicellular organism along

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golgi bodies

organelle in the cytoplasm which modifies the packages secretions (proteins)

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cell membrane

the lipid bilayer that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell

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mitochondria

organelles within the cell where respiration occurs

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nucleus

the part of the cell which contains the cells genetic material and controls the cells processes

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osmosis

the diffusion or movement of water through a semipermeable membrane from a high water concentration to low water concentration

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phagocytosis

the process by which some cells may flow around particles and engulf them

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photosynthesis

the process by which green plants manufacture glucose from carbon dioxide and water

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plasmolysis

the process whereby cell lose water and cause the cytoplasm to shrink away from the cell wall

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respiration

the process by which living cells break down large organic molecules to release energy in the form of ATP

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semi-permanable membrane

a membrane which allows only small and uncharged molecules to pass through

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specific enzyme

enzymes which control only one type of reaction

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turgid

a cell that is full of water due to osmosis

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unicellular

an organism made up of only one cell

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vacuole

a large bubble filled with watery fluid inside a cell

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ribosomes

site of protein synthesis

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Proteins

enzymes, nails, hair etc are examples

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christae

inner folds inside a mitochondrion which increase the surface area for the reactions during respiration

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centriole

the small structures found in animal cells that are involved in cell division

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grana

piles of disk like structures in a chloroplast where light is trapped and used to split the water molecule into oxygen and hydrogen

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cellulose wall

the tough cellulose layer around plant cells which protects and supports the cell

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lock and key model

the model by which substrates fit into the ridged active site of the enzyme

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induced fit

the model by which substrates fit into the active site of the enzyme.

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high surface area to volume ratio

small cells are better at diffusing things in and out due to their high surface area to volume ratio

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contractile vacuole

the special organelle found in many freshwater unicellular organism to expel excess water. Form of active transport (ATP needed)

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passive transport

the transport of small and uncharged molecules with the concentration gradient. No energy/ATP is needed.

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active site

the place on an enzyme where the substrate fits

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ATP

the main energy carrying molecule in an organism

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organelle

the general name for the structures inside a cell

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co-enzyme

a complex organic molecule which helps certain enzymes to function

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concentration gradient

change in concentration between one area and another

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cytoskeleton

a framework of microtubules inside the cytoplasm

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electron transport chain

the series of reactions that produces ATP during respiration

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fermentation

anaerobic respiration in plants

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eye spot

a light sensing organelle which is often found in photosynthetic aquatic unicellular organisms

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oral groove

opening which is often found in photosynthetic aquatic unicellular organisms which have to feed

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glycolysis

the first stage of respiration where food is broken down into pyruvic acid

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krebs cycle

middle stage of respiration which occurs inside the mitochondrial matrix space

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lactic acid

toxic compound produced in animals during anaerobic respiration

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light reaction

stage of photosynthesis where water is split by the sun's energy

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liposomes

cell organelle which contains enzymes to breakdown unwanted cell components

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nucleolus

dark stained region inside the nucleus where ribosomes are produced

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osmoregulation

the maintenance of correct water level inside a cell/organism

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phagocytes

cells which engulf and destroy solids (foreign) matter

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pinocytosis

the process by which the cell membrane surrounds fluid to take it into the cell

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rough ER

endoplasmic reticulum with ribosomes attached

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smooth ER

endoplasmic reticulum with no ribosomes attached

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stroma

'space' inside chloroplasts containing starch grains and enzymes

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substrate

substance that an enzyme acts upon

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activation energy

energy required so a reaction can start. enzymes and catalysts lower this

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