Drugs & Behavior - Ch. 14 (Dietary Supplements / Herbs & Inhalants)

studied byStudied by 170 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

true

1 / 15

Tags & Description

Studying Progress

0%
New cards
16
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
16 Terms
1
New cards

true

(t/f) GHB is a naturally occurring brain chemical

New cards
2
New cards

true

(t/f) caffeine is a common ingredient in OTC stimulant preparations

New cards
3
New cards

Dietary Supplement Health & Education Act

  • extended dietary supplement beyond vitamins to include herbs + amino acid preparations

  • reduced FDA authority to regulate herbal + other biological products that contain psychoactive drugs

  • herbal + other chemical preparations are exempt from regulations that require testing for safety and efficacy

New cards
4
New cards

ephedra / ma huang

  • originally found in Asia

  • stimulant effects (ephedrine + pseudoephedrine)

  • marketed for : increased energy, drowsiness, appetite suppression, "herbal" alternative to ecstasy at high doses

  • 2004 FDA banned products containing compound

New cards
5
New cards

melatonin

  • naturally occurring hormone produced by pineal gland (regulates biological rhythms + sleep)

  • reduce time it takes to fall asleep + lengthen sleep time

  • large therapeutic window

  • structurally similar to serotonin

New cards
6
New cards

ginseng

  • form of tea or chewing leaves

  • widespread medicinal use in Asia

  • regulate stress as calming agent

New cards
7
New cards

gingko biloba

  • Chinese herbal

  • "smart drug"

  • improved memory + information processing in patients with Alzheimer's or mild cognitive impairments

New cards
8
New cards

St. John's Wort

  • hypercium performatum

  • antidepressant effects (in those with mild depressive symptoms

  • proposed SSRI action

New cards
9
New cards

kava

  • piper methysticum

  • originates from South Pacific

  • root crushed for tea

  • sedative effect similar to alcohol

  • marketed to relieve stress + anxiety

  • enhances NT GABA

New cards
10
New cards

kavalactones

  • active compound in kava

  • enhances actions of neurotransmitter GABA

New cards
11
New cards

ibogaine

  • derived from root bark of African plant

  • used by population for treatment of drug + alcohol addiction (ability to reduce symptoms of drug withdrawal + craving)

  • minor effects on opioidergic system and kappa opioid receptors

New cards
12
New cards

inhalants

  • breathable chemicals that produce psychoactive vapors

  • usually volatile hydrocarbon / organic solvents

  • aerosols; solvents; cleaning agents; glue; etc.

New cards
13
New cards

abusers of inhalants

  • young males (8 to 16 years olds + group activity)

  • ~ 20% of youths by 8th grade

New cards
14
New cards

mechanism of action for inhalants

  • effects similar with alcohol + sedatives

  • enhancement of GABA

  • reduction of glutamate (NMDA receptor)

  • taken up by white matter (myelin) around axons

New cards
15
New cards

mechanism of action for nitrite inhalants

  • dilates coronary arteries

  • dilate cerebral blood vessels

New cards
16
New cards

toxic side effects of inhalants

  • numbing of extremities

  • permanent peripheral nerve damage

  • death by asphyxiation

  • Parkinson-like syndrome

  • cortical / cerebellar damage

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 43 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(4)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 21 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 107 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(6)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard47 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard38 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard36 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard69 terms
studied byStudied by 218 people
Updated ... ago
4.6 Stars(5)
flashcards Flashcard75 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard168 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard45 terms
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard78 terms
studied byStudied by 29 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)