Chapter 10 - Communication

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What is Communication?

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What is Communication?

The process by which information is exchanged between a sender and a receiver.

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What is the Simple Model of Communication?

Sender encodes thoughts 🡢 Receiver decodes message

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What is Effective Communication?

Occurs when the right people receive the right information in a timely manner.

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What is the Chain of Command?

Lines of authority and formal reporting relationships.

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Problems w/ Chains of Command

• Impedes informal communication • Slows down info transfer • Message gets filtered/watered down

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What is Voice?

The constructive expression of disagreement or concern about the work unit or organizational practices.

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What is Silence?

Opposite of voice, refers to the withholding of relevant information. Leads to higher stress and self-censorship.

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What is the Mum Effect?

The tendency to avoid communicating unfavorable news to others.

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What is the Grapevine?

An organization's informal communication network

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Participants of The Grapevine - Personality

○ Extroverts pass on more information than introverts

○ Those who lack self-esteem might pass on info that gives personal advantage

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Participants of The Grapevine - Location

○ Occupants of workstations that receive a lot of traffic transmit more info

○ People who move through the organization also transmit more info

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What are some pros of The Grapevine?

Provides inexpensive info, serves as an alternate source of power, builds trust among members

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What are some cons of The Grapevine?

Spreads rumors, which can damage the org

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What is Jargon?

Specialized language used by job holders or members of particular occupations/organizations

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What is Humor?

Creates positive emotions that facilitate attention, understanding, and message acceptance

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What is Non-Verbal Communication?

The transmission of messages by some medium other than speech or writing.

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What is Body Language?

Non-verbal communication by means of a sender's bodily motions, facial expressions, or physical location.

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Body Language - Interest

Senders direct torso towards receiver, maintain eye contact, lean forward

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Body Language - High Status

Senders are relaxed, casual, not nervous

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Office Décor + Communication

People feel more welcomed in open spaces, and can judge OCEAN traits from your office décor

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Clothing + Communication

Clothing sends signals about competence, seriousness, and promotability; prone to stereotypes

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What is the Red Sneakers Effect?

Refers to the tendency for intentional dress code nonconformity to signal status and competence.

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True or False - Girls see conversations as a way to develop networks of connection & intimacy

True

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True or False - Boys see conversations as a way to achieve status and independence

True

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Non-Verbal Communication & Culture - Facial Expressions

Some collectivist cultures tend to match the sender's emotions, be careful when judging other's emotions

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Non-Verbal Communication & Culture - Gestures

Generally not cross-cultural, as they involve symbolism that isn't shared

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Non-Verbal Communication & Culture - Gaze

Some cultures avoid the sender's gaze as a sign of respect, in others its disrespectful

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Non-Verbal Communication & Culture - Touch

Some cultures touch eachother as an adjunct to conversations, others keep distance

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What is Cultural Context?

The level of influence context has in communication, across cultures.

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How do Low-Context cultures communicate?

  • Less aware of non-verbal cues, environment, and situation

  • Prefer explicit directions from knowledgeable sources

  • Knowledge is a commodity

  • Lack well-developed networks

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How do High-Context cultures communicate?

  • Non-verbal cues are important

  • Physical context relied upon for information

  • Maintain extensive information networks

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What is Information Richness?

The potential information-carrying capacity of a communication medium.

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What are the 2 Dimensions of Information Richness?

  1. Synchronicity

  2. Cue Reception

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What is Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC)?

Forms of communication that rely on digital technology to facilitate information exchange.

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Pros of Social Media

• Aids in sharing knowledge • Facilitates collaboration + voice • Breaks down status barriers

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Cons of Social Media

• Addicting, leads to cyberloafing • Can lead to cyberbullying

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What is Enterprise Social Media?

A private work-related social media platform that is accessible only by organizational members.

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What is Congruence?

Occurs when a person’s words, thoughts, feelings, and actions all contain the same message.

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5 Active Listening Techniques

• Body Language • Paraphrase the Speaker • Show Empathy • Ask Questions • Wait Out Pauses

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Active Listening Techniques - Body Language

Sit up, lean forward, and maintain eye contact with the sender

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Active Listening Techniques - Paraphrase the Speaker

Reflect back on what the sender said, to show interest

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Active Listening Techniques - Show Empathy

Show the sender you understand their feelings and perspective

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Active Listening Techniques - Ask Questions

Have people repeat, clarify, or elaborate what they said

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Active Listening Techniques - Wait Out Pauses

Do not feel pressured to talk during pauses, allow speaker to elaborate

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Improving Communication - Employer Branding

○ Promoting a clear, consistent, positive image of the organization as an employer

○ Attracts new employees + reinforces commitment of existing employees

○ Conveys both tangible and symbolic aspects of the employment experience

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Improving Communication - Provision of Explanations

○ Providing clear explanations for controversial policies + implementing them fairly

○ Adequate explanations are specific, detailed, and truthful

○ Requires rich communication medium, like announcement from CEO

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Improving Communication - 360-Degree Feedback

○ Performance appraisal that uses the input of supervisors, employees, clients, customers, etc.

○ Employees are evaluated, but also evaluate their bosses, coworkers, and customers

○ Used for employee development rather than salary determination

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Improving Communication - Employee Surveys

○ Anonymous survey, lets employees state their candid thoughts about organizational practices

○ Good employee surveys contain questions that appreciate employee concerns

○ Good employee surveys must also yield useful info, that the org can use to implement changes

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Improving Communication - Suggestions Systems

○ Programs that enhance upwards communication by soliciting ideas from employees

○ Good programs reward employees for adopted suggestions, but paying can motivate secrecy

○ Management should provide feedback as to how suggestions are evaluated, improves fairness

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Improving Communication - Corporate Hotlines

○ Hotlines can be valuable at times of crisis like strikes, storms, closures

○ Hotlines can be used as query systems employees can use to ask questions

○ Hotlines can be used to help employees report unethical or illegal behavior

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Improving Communication - Corporate Webcasting

○ Constitutes a rich communication medium that can reach employees anywhere on earth

○ Allows for flexible information sessions, training programs, and new product introductions

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